2017 YILI BÖLÜM FAALİYET RAPORU
E. Kucukkoyuncu, A. Agma Okur, E. Tahtabicen, F. Korkmaz, H.E. Samli, 2017. Comparing Quality of Free Range and Battery Cage Eggs. European Poultry Science, 81, ISSN 1612-9199, DOI: 10.1399/eps.2017.197.
Quality parameters of eggs from laying hens kept in free-range respectively battery cage systems were compared. Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 75) from 24 to 31 wk of age were used in the study. Feed and water were available ad libitum for both systems. Lightning was applied via a photovoltaic system planned to benefit from solar energy for the free range system. Eggs were sampled at 14-day intervals and interior and exterior quality parameters were recorded. The study showed that hen age was much more influential than housing system on egg weight (P<0.05). However, shell weight was found to be significantly higher at 28 weeks of age in free-range eggs (P<0.05). The yolk colour of free range eggs were significantly lower than that of cage eggs (P<0.001). It might be caused by colouring agents supplemented to the cage hen diet. On the other hand, yolks of free range eggs were significantly heavier. However, similar effects were not observed with regard to albumen.
Key words: Laying hen, free range, cage, egg quality
F. Koc, S. Ozturk Aksoy, A. Agma Okur, G. Celikyurt, D. Korucu, M. L. Ozduven, 2017. Effect of Pre-fermented Juice, lactobacillus plantarum and lactobacillus buchneri on the FermentationCharacteristics and Aerobic Stability of High Dry Matter Alfalfa Bale Silage. The J. Anim. Plant Sci. 27(5): 1426-1431.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of pre-fermented juice (PFJ), Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium (LP), and Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of alfalfa bale silage. The herbage was wilted to 602.3 g/kg dry matter (DM). Treatments of alfalfa silage included (1) control; (2) PFJ: 2.6×105 colony-forming units (cfu/g); (3) LP: 1.0×106 cfu/gLactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium (Pioneer 1188, USA) and (4) LB: 1.0×106 cfu/gLactobacillus buchneri (Pioneer 11A44) and baled, 150 days.At the end of the ensiling period, three bales of each treatment group were opened and chemical and microbiological analyses were made. Consequently, lactic acid bacteria inoculants and PFJ increased the quality of alfalfa silages. In terms of aerobic stability, PFJ and LP used had a positive effect on CO2 concentrations coliform bacteria and yeast. Also, LB inoculant decreased NDF content and increased in vitro organic matter digestibility of silages.A total number of 15 representatives of lactic acid bacterial strains were retained and among them 3 dominant genus were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (46.66%), Lactobacillus pentosaceus (33.33%)and Lactobacillus collinoides (20%). It can be concluded that PFJ can be used as silage additive alfalfa bale silage in farm condition.
Key words: Alfalfa bale silage; identification; in vitro organic matter digestibility; lactic acid bacterial inoculants: PFJ (pre-fermented juice).
F. Tan, I.S. Dalmıs, F. Koc, 2017. Effects of Compaction Pressure on Silage Fermentation in Bunker Silo. Agronomy Research, 15(1): 298-306.
The aim of this research was to determine the effects of compaction pressure on maize silage fermentation under field conditions. The CAT 955 L type work machine was used for the compaction of the material. In this research, a pressure measurement system was developed to measure the compaction pressure in bunker silos. In bunker silos, 24 points for pressure and temperature measurement were identified. Chemical and microbiological analyzes were made by taking samples from each measurement point. The lowest temperature is measured in the back wall of the silo. There is a significant relationship between pressure and temperature. Pressure had a significant effect (P<0.05) on silage fermentation. There was a significant correlation between regions in bunker silo and pressure (R²=0.914, P<0.01).
H. Akyürek, T. Gül, 2017. Effect of Fenugreek, Coriander and Thyme Essential Oils Addition on Microbiology of Soybean Meal and Sunflower Meal in Different Storage Periods.Pak. J. Nutr., 16 (11): 876-881, 2017.
Objective:This study was organized with the aim to determine the effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oils added to stored soybean meal and sunflower meal on lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast, mould formation, nutrient and colour changes. Methodology:In order to explore the relationship between essential oil addition and feed microbiology under different times of storage, 4×2 factorial study design was used. Thus “absence of essential oils (control group)” versus “addition of essential oils” and “storage during 30 days” versus “storage during 60 days” at 22±2EC and 55% relative humidity (HR) were compared. Results: The addition of essential oils to vegetable protein sources has a positive impact on the counts of microorganisms and nutrient composition. The addition of essential oils to sunflower and soybean meal inhibited the growth of mould. Conclusion:Feed ingredients with essential oils addition demonstrated protective effect.
Key words:Essential oil, microbiology, soybean meal, sunflower meal, storage
This study was carried out to determine the effects of in ovo pollen extract injection on growth parameters, ileal histomorphology, and caecal microflora of fasted broiler chicks. In this experiment, 2×2 factorial experimental design was used. One d old, 120 healthy broiler chicks were allocated to 4 treatment groups and 6 replicates (5 mixed sex chicks allocated each replicates). Treatment groups were: A) Pollen extract injection and 24 h fasting (P24); B) Pollen extract injection and 48 h fasting (P48), C) Control, no injection 24 h fasting (C24) and D) Control, no injection 48 h fasting (C48). The experiment lasted 21 days. Live weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. Ileal histomorphology, caecal microbiota, organ weight were recorded at 21th days of experiment. In ovo pollen extract injection did not affect hatchability rate. At the end of 21 days, in ovo pollen extract injection did not affect feed intake, live weight gain, feed conversion ratio, inner organ development and ileal villi width irrespective to fasting 24 h and 48 h. In ovo pollen extract injection increased ileal villi length, caecal lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae count, decreased caecal Enterobactericaea count. In conclusion, in ovo pollen extract injection can be applied for broiler eggs to improve weight gain, better digestion and gut health.
Key words: Broiler, In ovo injection, Performance, Pollen extract.
I. Coskun, M. Tad, G. Filik, A. Altop, A. Sahin, G. Erener, H. E. Samli, 2017. Dietary Symbiotic Supplementation Alters The Ileal Histomorphology and Caecal Pathogen Micro-Organism in Broiler Chicks. Journal of. Livestock Sci. 8: 109-114.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary symbiotic supplementation on growth performance, digestive tract development, ilealhistomorphology, caecaltotalColiform, E coli andEnterobactericaeacounts in different chick weights. A blend of mannanoligosaccharide and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixture was used as symbiotic. Two initial body weight groups (L= Light and H= Heavy chicks) and two feeds (B= basal diet and S= 0,2% symbiotic supplemented diet) were tested in 2x2 factorial experimental design. One hundred and twenty newly hatched chicks obtained from a healthy broiler parent stock aged 40 wk old. Each treatment group had 3 replicates consist of 10 chicks. Trial lasted for 21 days. Daily body weight gain (DBWG), daily feed intake (DFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) (g feed/g gain) was recorded weekly. The DBWG, DFI, FCR and digestive tract development (heart, liver, gizzard, proventriculus, pancreas, bursa fabricius weight and gut length) were not affected by treatments. Symbiotic supplementation increased villi length. Symbiotic supplementation decreased pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia Coli, Coliform and Enterobactericaea) in caeca irrespective to the DBWG of chicks. To conclude, symbiotic supplementation can be used to improve villi morphology and to suppress pathogenic microorganisms in caeca.
Key words: broiler chicks, mannanoligosaccharide, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
M. L. Ozduven, F. Koç, V. Akay. 2017. Effects of Bacterial Inoculants and Enzymes on the Fermentation, Aerobic Stability and in vitro Organic Matter Digestibility Characteristics of Sunflower Silages. Pak. J. Nutr., 16 (1): 22-27.
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria inoculant, enzymes and lactic acid bacteria inoculant+enzymes mixture on the fermentation, cell wall content, aerobic stability and in vitro organic matter digestibility characteristics of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage of maturity. The treatments were as follows: (1) control (no additive), (2) inoculation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB; 2 g/ton, a mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium applied at a rate of 6.00 log10 cfu LAB/g of fresh material) (3) enzyme (E; 150000 CMCU/kg for cellulase and 200000 SKB/kg for amylase) and (4) LAB+enzyme mixture (LAB+E, 2 g/ton a mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium (6.00 log10 cfu/g) and 150000 CMCU/kg for cellulase and 200000 SKB/kg for amylase). After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in 1.0-l special anaerobic jars, equipped with a lid enabling gas release only. The jars were stored at 25±2°C under laboratory conditions. Three jars from each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis 2, 4, 8 and 60 days after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 5 days. In addition, in vitro organic matter digestibilities of these silages were determined. Both inoculants (LAB and LAB+E) increased characteristics of fermentation but impaired aerobic stability of sunflower silages. LAB+E mixture inoculants decreased neutral and acid detergent fiber content than control silages.In vitro organic matter digestibilitywas numerically increased for treated than control silages.
Key words: Silage, sunflower, lactic acid bacterial inoculants, enzyme, fermentation, aerobic stability.
Ulusal İndekste taranan dergilerde yayınlar
F. Korkmaz, S. Soycan Önenç, 2017. Raf Ömrü Dolan Gıdaların Alternatif Yem Kaynağı Olarak Ruminantlarda İn Vitro Sindirilebilirliğinin Belirlenmesi. Hayvansal Üretim 58(1):28-32, 2017.
Bu araştırmanın amacı, makarna, puding, gofret unu, dondurma-kepek karşımı, sebze ve yoğurt çorbalarının ham besin madde içeriklerinin ve in vitro metabolik enerji değerinin belirlenerek ruminant beslemede kullanılabilirliğini ortaya koymaktır. Örnekler Hohenheim Futterwerter Test (HFT) yöntemine göre in vitro koşullarda 24 saatlik inkübasyona bırakılmıştır. Toplam gaz oluşum miktarları 3., 6., 9., 12., 24. saatlerde ölçülmüştür. Örneklerde 24. saatteki toplam gaz oluşumuna göre organik maddelerin sindirim derecesi (OMS), metabolik enerji (ME), net enerji laktasyon (NEL) içerikleri hesaplanmıştır. Örnekler arasındaki GO farkları istatistiki olarak önemli bulunmuştur (P<0.05). Aynı zamanda net GO miktarları değerlendirildiğinde ise, en yüksek GO miktarı 53,69 ml/ 200 mg KM makarnada, en düşük ise 25,76 ml/ 200 mg KM dondurma kepek karışımında bulunmuştur. Belirlenen GO miktarlarından yararlanılarak hesaplanılan OMS, ME ve NEL içerikleri incelendiğinde, en yüksek OMS değeri (92,00) sebze çorbasında belirlenirken en yüksek ME makarnada (13,06 Mcal/kg KM), en yüksek NEL ise gofret ununda (38,68 MJ/kg KM) bulunmuştur.
Ruminant rasyonlarına enerjice zengin yem kaynaklarına alternatif olarak makarna, puding, sebze ve yoğurt çorbası, gofret unu ve dondurma-kepek karışımının kullanılabileceği sonucuna varılmıştır.
Anahtar kelimeler: Alternatif yem kaynakları, ruminant besleme, rumen fermantasyonu, HFT
Determination of In Vitro Digestibility of Shelf Life Ended Food as Alternative Feedstuff Sources in Ruminants
The aim of this study is to reveal the possibility of pasta, pudding, wafer meal, ice-cream bran mixture, vegetable and yoghurt soups after determining their crude nutrient components and in vitro metabolic energy values. Samples were left for 24 hour incubation under in vitro conditions according to Hohenheim Futterwerter Test (HFT). The amount of total gas production was recorded at the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 24th hours. Digestible organic matter (DOM), metabolic energy (ME) and net energy lactation (NEL) ingredients were predicted according to total gas production (GP) at the 24th hour. The GO differences among the samples were found statistically significant (P<0.05). When net GP amounts of the 24-hour-period were evaluated, the highest GP value was found out as 53.69 ml/ 200 mg DM in pasta, whereas the lowest value was found out as 25.76 ml/ 200 mg DM in ice-cream bran mixture. When DOM, ME, and NEL ingredients were calculated using GP amounts determined at the 24th hour, the highest value of DOM was found out (92.00) in pasta, the highest value of ME was found out in pasta (13,06 Mcal/kg KM), and the highest value of NEL was found out in wafer meal (38.68 MJ/kg KM).
It has been concluded that pasta, pudding, vegetable and yoghurt soups, wafer meal and ice-cream bran mixture can be used as alternatives to ruminant rations, feedstuff sources rich in energy.
Key words: Alternative feedstuff sources, ruminant feeding, ruminant fermentation, HFT
G. Malhatun Çotuk, S. Soycan Önenç, 2017. Yonca Silajına Kepek ve Puding İlavesinin Silaj Fermantasyonu, Aerobik Stabilite ve İn Vitro SindirilebilirlikÜzerine Etkileri. Hayvansal Üretim 58(1):15-21.
Bu araştırmanın amacı, kepek alternatifi olarak gıda endüstrisi atığı olan (son kullanım tarihi dolmuş) pudingin yonca silajının fermantasyon kalitesi, aerobik stabilitesi, in vitro metabolik enerji içerikleri ve nispi yem değeri üzerine etkilerini belirlemektir. Çalışma laboratuvar koşullarında (16±2 °C) gerçekleştirilmiş, silolamanın 60. gününde açılan silajlara fiziksel, kimyasal ve mikrobiyolojik analizler yapılmıştır. Ayrıca, 7 gün süre ile aerobik stabilite testi uygulanmış, enzimde çözünen organik madde miktarı, metabolik enerji içerikleri ve nispi yem değeri saptanmıştır.
Yoncaya kepek ve puding katılması nötr deterjan lifi (NDF), asit deterjan lifi (ADF) ve asit deterjan lignin (ADL)’i düşürmüştür (P<0.05). Bu silajların pH ve suda çözülebilir karbonhidrat (SÇK) içerikleri ile NH3-N miktarı kontrole göre düşmüş, laktik asit (LA) içeriği ise puding grubunda yüksek (P<0.05) bulunmuştur. Kepek ve puding ilavesiyle laktik asit bakteri (LAB) sayısı artmış (P<0.05), enterobakteri, maya ve küf sayıları ise kontrole göre azalmıştır (P<0.05). Aerobik dönemde özellikle puding ilavesi kuru madde kaybı (KMK), pH, CO2 çıkışını düşürmüş ancak maya ve küf gelişimini engelleyememiştir (P<0.05). Yonca silajına kepek ve puding katılması silajların enzimde çözünenen organik madde (EÇOM) miktarını, in vitro metabolik enerji (ME) içeriğini, sindirilebilir kuru madde (SKM), kuru madde tüketimi (KMT) ve nispi yem değeri (NYD)’ni artmıştır (P<0.05).
Yapılan çalışma, özellikle yağışların bol olduğu ve kurutma imkanının olmadığı ilk baharda, gıda endüstrisinin yoğun olduğu bölgelerde, yoncanın 50 g/kg puding ilave edilerek silolanmasının kontrol grubundan daha avantajlı olduğunu, kepek yerine kullanılabileceğini ortaya koymuştur.
Anahtar kelimeler: Yonca silajı, silaj fermantasyonu, kepek, puding, aerobik stabilite
Effects of Bran and Pudding Addition on Silage Fermentation, Aerobic Stability and In Vitro Digestibility in Alfalfa Silage
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of pudding as a food industry waste (with expired shelf life) on the fermentation quality, aerobic stability, in vitro metabolic energy contents, and relative feed value (RFV) of alfalfa silages. The study was carried out under laboratory conditions (16±2 °C); physical, chemical and microbiological analysis were conducted on the silages uncovered on the 60th day. Furthermore, aerobic stability test was carried out for 7 days, and enzyme-soluble organic matter (ESOM), metabolic energy contents (ME) as well as RFV were determined.
The addition of bran and pudding into alfalfa led to a decrease in neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) (P<0.05). The pH level, water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) contents, and NH3-N amount decreased in comparison to the control group, yet lactic acid (LA) content was found out to be high (P<0.05) in pudding group. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with the addition of bran and pudding (P <0.05); however, the number of enterobacter, yeast and mould decreased when compared to control (P <0.05).
Within the aerobic period, the addition of pudding decreased particularly dry matter loss (DML), pH, and the release of CO2, but could not prevent the development of yeast or mould (P<0.05). The addition of bran and pudding into alfalfa silage increased the amount of ESOM, in vitro metabolic energy (ME) content, digestible dry matter (DDM), dry matter intake (DMI), and relative feed value (RFV) in silages (P<0.05).
The study revealed that in spring when precipitation is abundant and there is no possibility of drying, in the regions where food industry is intensive, it was more advantageous to ensilage alfalfa with an addition of 50 g/kg pudding when compared to the control group, and that it could be replaced with bran.
Keywords: Alfalfa silage, silage fermantation, bran,pudding, aerobic stability
S. Soycan Önenç, F. Koc, L. Coşkuntuna, L. Özdüven, T.Gümüş, 2017. Kekik ve Tarçın Uçucu Yağlarının Yem Bezelyesi Silajlarının Fermantasyon Kalitesi ile In Vitro Metabolik Enerji İçerikleri Üzerine Etkileri. Hayvansal Üretim. 58(2): 39-44.
Bu araştırma kekik (KK) ve tarçın (TRN) uçucu yağlarının, organik asit (OA) alternatifi olarak yem bezelyesi silajlarının fermantasyon kalitesi ve in vitro metabolik enerji (ME) içerikleri üzerine etkilerini belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırmada kullanılan yem bezelyesi bakla oluşum döneminde hasat edilmiş (48 saat soldurma) ve yaklaşık 1.5-2.0 cm boyutunda parçalanmıştır. Parçalanan taze materyale 5g/kg düzeyinde organik asit, 400 mg/kg kekik uçucu yağı, 400 mg/kg tarçın uçucu yağı ve 400+400 mg/kg kekik+tarçın uçucu yağı (KKTRN), kontrol (KON) grubuna ise saf su katılmıştır. Yaklaşık 2 kg örnek plastik torbalara konularak vakumla içindeki hava alınmış ve 2-3 kat streç filmle kaplanmıştır. Silolamadan 120 gün sonra açılmıştır. Araştırmada kullanılan kekik ve tarçın uçucu yağı, yem bezelyesi silajlarının asetik asit (AA) ve Enzimde Çözünen Organik Madde (EÇOM) içeriklerini olumlu yönde etkilemiştir. Ancak, bütün sonuçlar birarada ele alınarak değerlendirildiğinde, silajların sarıldığı kat sayılarının arttırılarak çalışmanın tekrarlanmasının gerekli olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır.
Anahtar kelimeler: Yem bezelyesi, silaj fermantasyonu, uçucu yağ, metabolik enerji
Effects of Essential Oils of oregano and Cinnamon on Fermentation Quality and In Vitro Metabolic Energy of Field Pea Silages
This study was performed to determine the effect of field pea silages which are the organic acid alternative of Oregano and cinnamon essential oils on fermentation quality and metabolic energy (ME). Whole field pea was harvested at full pod stage and wilted in the laboratory at the 48 h. The chopped pea was mixed and divided into equal portions for application of five treatments: CON; distilled water, denoted as treatment control; treatment OA; organic acid, 5 g/kg of fresh forage, treatment ORE; origanum onites L. essential oil at 400 mg, treatment CIN; cinnamon essential oil at 400 mg, treatment ORECIN; ORE + CIN, a mixture of ORE and CIN applied at an equal rate of 400 mg of fresh forage.The oregano and cinnamon essential oil used in the research affected the acetic acid and Enzymatic solubility of organic matter (ESOM) positively in the 120 day silage of the field pea silages. However, when all the results of the research were evaluated together, it was concluded that it is necessary to repeat the work by increasing the number of layers in which the silages are wrapped.
Keywords: Field pea silage, silage fermantation, essential oil, metabolic energy
Uluslararası Kongre ve Sempozyum
A.R. Önal, R. Aydın, Y. T. Tuna, A. Şen, M. Özder. 2017. The Relationship Between Body Hygiene Score and Locomotion Score. BALNIMALCON 2017, 6-8 Eylül 2017, Prizren/KOSOVA. (Sözlü Sunum).
Housing or barn cleaning conditions (manure) effect to body hygiene score and also locomotion score of dairy cows in dairy farm. Body hygiene score, locomotion score and barn hygiene conditions are already the main measurements of welfare parameters in dairy farms. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between body hygiene score and locomotion score of dairy cows. The study was conducted on a big commercial dairy farm which has 3000 heads of milking cow capacity in Turkey. This study was carry out in separated one pen by 202 heads of milking cow and the primary cattle breed was Holstein. Chi-square test for independence applied for determine whether there is a significant relationship between body hygiene scores and locomotion scores. SPSS software used for data processed. It was determined that the biggest body hygiene scores for 1,2,3 and 4 locomotion score groups were 1 (38.1%), 2 (50.5%), 2 (43.1%) and 3 (66.7%) respectively and was highly statistical significant relationship between body hygiene scores and locomotion scores (P<0.01). In addition, the 45.5% of total milking cows had 2 body hygiene score and 29.2% had 3, 23.3% had 1 and 2% had 4 body hygiene score respectively. The result indicated that the barn cleaning conditions has an effect on laminitis in dairy farms and the well barn management practices can help to decrease the lame animal numbers.
Key words: Body hygiene score,locomotion score,laminitis,dairy cow
A.R. Önal, Y. T. Tuna, A. Şen, M. Özder. 2017.Monitoring of Dairy Cattle Activities by Computer Technology. 2nd International Balkan Agriculture Congress 2017, 16-18 Mayıs 2017, Tekirdağ/TÜRKİYE. (Sözlü Sunum)
Computer technology is a wide field that covers many topics of information technology and used in many different kind of industry. Computers and computer technology in today's world have become much simple and cheap. In animal production systems computer technology used for precision dairy farming. Precision Dairy Farming involves using of computer technologies for determination quality and quantity of production, physiological activities and behavior of individual cow and animal. In current the most used computer technologies in animal production is used for monitoring cow milking performance, reproduction and cow health. Physiological or behavioral parameters from individual cows such as animal position and location, lying and standing behavior and time, rumination, rumination times, rumen activity, jaw movement and chewing activity, temperature,milk components and electrical conductivity, mastitis, body weight, hoof health, lameness, heart rate, body condition score, methane emissions, rectal temperature, respiration rate and rumen Ph etc. monitoring by precision dairy farming systems. The aim of this study is giving information that how are these parameters determine and use in precision dairy farming systems.
Key words: Precision dairy farming, monitoring, behavior, dairy cow
A.R. Önal, Y. T. Tuna, A. Şen, E. Köycü, M. Özder. 2017. Compost Bedded Pack Barn Concept and Application Possibilities in Turkey. 2nd International Balkan Agriculture Congress 2017, 16-18 Mayıs 2017, Tekirdağ/TÜRKİYE. (Poster sunum)
Dairy housing systems have an important affect on cow comfort, animal welfare, health and longevity of dairy cattle. The compost bedded pack barn is an alternative housing system for lactating dairy cow. This concept of barn applied in Minnesota at first in 2001 and developed by Virginia Dairy farmer in 2002 in United States. The two major diseases of dairy cattle are lameness and clinical mastitis. Both diseases have important relationship with living, resting area and bedding materials. Research show that the compost bedded pack barn concept, improve cow comfort and animal cleanliness and decrease number of animal with lameness and clinical mastitis cows. The success of compost dairy barn has high correlation with type of bedded materials, aeration of pack, biological activity of compost-heat, moisture and ventilation. The aim and scope of study is evaluation of this parameters affect on compost dairy barn and the possibilities of application this barn concept in different region of Turkey.
Key words: Compost bedded pack barn, cow comfort, housing, dairy cows
A. Şen, A. R. Önal, M. Özder, E. Pehlivan, G. Dellal. 2017. Sheep and Goat Production in Balkan Countries and the Status of Turkey. BALNIMALCON 2017, 6-8 Eylül 2017, Prizren/KOSOVA. (Sözlü Sunum).
Sheep and goat production is the most important animal production in Balkan countries cause the cultural conception choice. Mainly the production made for dual purpose as wool and lamb. The number of the live animals changes in the Balkan and east European countries by different factors. According to the statistical data the biggest number of sheep with 31.140.244 heads, and goat with 10.344.936 heads in Turkey. The structure of pasture has a big role in this factor. The length of the green grass in pasture areas was mainly short and available for sheep and goat feeding. Greece and Bulgaria follow Turkey with 9.072.000 and 1.369.578 heads of sheep respectively and 4.255.000 and 289.308 heads of goat respectively in 2014. The aim of this study was evaluation of goat and sheep numbers, product such as milk, meat, wool and skin data in Turkey and other Balkan countries from 1960s to 2014.
Key words: Balkan countries, goat, sheep, wool, meat, milk
The present study describes in vitro antimicrobial activity ofGlycyrrhiza glabra, Eremurus spectabilis, propolis and apricot karnel paste. Escherichia coli and salmonella sp. Were used as test organisim. Antimicrobial activity was tested by paper disc diffusion method. Bacterial cultures were growth on nutrient agar one dayat 37 °C in 24 hour andsuspend in nutrient broth and that contaraction adjuster to 0,5 Mc Farland standart tube. 100 µl of the bacterial suspension was spread on 9 cm diameter petri dishes containing nutrient agar medium. Sterile paper discs (diameter 5 mm) were put on the medium and 20, 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 µl of each extracts was dropped on the discs. Steriled water was used for negative control. All plates were incubated at 37 °C for one day. The diameter of the clear zone around the disc was measured as milimeters.
Key words: in vitro antimicrobial activity, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Eremurus spectabilis, propolis, apricot kernel paste, plant extract, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp
F. Korkmaz, A. Ağma Okur, E. Tahtabiçen, H.E. Şamlı, 2017. Nutrigenomics and Animal Feed Applications. 2nd International Balkan Agriculture Congress, 16-18 May, s.419, Tekirdag, Turkey. (Sözel bildiri)
There are two important developments in the history of feeding about 2 centuries. The first is the clarification of the chemical structures of the foods that are called chemical revolutions. The second is to show that the nutritional items called genomic revolutions interact with and directly influence the molecular mechanisms governing physiological processes. In order to meet the food requirement of the rapidly growing human population, instead of the recent classical studies in the field of animal feeding to be used in animal production systems, new techniques in the areas of molecular genetics and molecular biology have been sought. In classical feeding studies; It was determined that nutrient is one of the most important factors affecting health conditions and yield characteristics of animals in environmental factors. With advanced technical studies; The beegin to illuminate of the genomic sequence of animals has also led to intensive studies on the rapid development of new fields such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics, the interaction between food and genes, and the effects of nutrients on gene expression. At the beginning of 2000 years, using a nutrigenomic term, a scientist has emerged who is interested in the role of nutrients in gene expression. In this way; Animal husbandry practices of nutrigenomi have emerged as a new research topic, with a more effective animal production, far from feeding-related diseases, bringing new approaches to animal nutrition.
Key words: nutrigenomic, animal feed, proteomic, metabolamic
E.Köycü, A. R. Önal, A. Şen, Y. T. Tuna, M. Özder. 2017. The Characteristics of Turkgeldi Crossbreed Sheep. BALNIMALCON 2017, 6-8 Eylül 2017, Prizren/KOSOVA. (Sözlü Sunum).
Crossbreeds can explain like an organism with in general purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties or populations. Many of sheep breeds used for crossbreeding in different countries by different aims. In general the aim of crossbreeding is to improvement or development new genotype from two or more breeds which have good genetic capacity, high production levels and good adaptability of local condition etc. Turkgeldi sheep breed has been improvement by the aim of lamb meat production purpose in Trakya region of the Turkey in 1980s. Tahirova (75%) and Kivircik (25%) breeds used as parents for improvement of Turkgeldi genotype. Tahirova genotype was an also crossbreed of East Friesian (75%) and Kivircik (25%) breeds. Tahirova have good reproductive performance and production level in south of Marmara. Kivircik breed was native breed of Marmara and well adapted in this area and known by meat taste in Turkey. The characteristics of the genotype; color is white, live weight of male are 70-80 kg and female 40-50 kg in average, twin birth rate is 1.40-1.50, mating season period is 200-220 days, milk production in a lactation is 150-180 kg, wool production is 2.5-3 kg. The crossbreeding procedures and characteristics of the genotype were evaluated in this study.
Key words: Turkgeldi, Kivircik, Trakya, crossbreeding, sheep
E. Pehlivan, S. Haşimoğlu, B. Bayram, V. Aksakal, A. K. Öztürk, G. Dellal, A. Şen. 2017. Organic Animal Production in Turkey: Problems and Solution Proposals. 2nd International Balkan Agriculture Congress 2017, 16-18 Mayıs 2017, Tekirdağ/TÜRKİYE. (Sözlü Sunum)
Organic animal production is an alternative management system with the aim of improving and protection of human health, animal health and welfare, environment as sustainable manner. The production and marketing of organic animal production in the world has not been sufficient progress yet. A limited level progress has occurred mainly in hot climates countries. In the recent years there have been increases in organic livestock production volume in Turkey as in the EU. However the highest progress was realized in organic poultry industry. This paper will be emphasized on current state of the organic animal production in Turkey and given some strategies and opportunities for its development.
Key words: Turkey, organic animal production, problems and solution proposals, livestock
F. Korkmaz, A. Ağma Okur, E. Tahtabiçen, H.E. Şamlı, 2017. Effects of Rhubarb (Rheum ribes) Extracts Supplementation on Different Meals Microbiology in Different Storage Conditions. 2nd International Balkan Agriculture Congress, 16-18 May, s.453, Tekirdag, Turkey. (Poster bildiri)
Meals are important raw materials in poultry feeds and are used as protein source. Transport and storage conditions have been reported to have significant effects on the quality of the meals. For example, it is known that storage conditions are a factor affecting the species and numbers of microorganisms in meals. This research aims to investigate the effects of rhubarb (Rheum ribes) extract under different storage conditions. For this purpose; 2 varieties of meals (sunflower seed, soybean meals) were stored for 60 days under different conditions (21 °C to 37.5 °C) with the supplementation of rhubarb extract. As a result of the study, numbers of microorganisms in meals were determined during the storage with the addition of rhubarb extract.
Key words: Rhubarb extract (rheum ribes), animal feed, antimicrobial, feed storage
F. Korkmaz, H.E. Samli, 2017. Usage of Color Additives In Animal Nutrition. 2nd International Balkan Agriculture Congress (Poster).
Given the consumer's preference, the color from the sensory properties of foods plays an important role in the attractiveness of food. The first impression of a food is seen, and the choice of food depends on whether it is accepted or rejected. Many studies on the subject have revealed that there is a positive relationship between color and flavor. In sensory terms, color creates an expectation on flavor. Egg yolk and skin color are also available for the purchase of trout meat color, natural coloring materials in feed (carotinoids in maize, green plants, pepper, various flowers) and artificial materials in feeds. In addition, these additives enhance the immune system, increase the number and quality of eggs in fish, and positively affect human health.
Key words:Pigmentation,animal nutrition,color materials,carotenoid sources,poultry,trout
F. Korkmaz, Ş. M. Topaloğlu, B. Okuyucu, A. Fidan, H. E. Şamlı, E. Özkan Ünal, 2017. An Investigation of Growth Hormone (Gh), Leptin Receptor (Lpr) and Prolactin (Prl) Genes Polymorphism In Poultry Species (Sunulu Bildiri)
The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of some poultry breeds (broiler - layer chicken and quail), based on the growth hormone (GH), leptin receptor(LPR) and prolactin (PRL), genes. To study the polymorphisms in these genes, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing methods was performed. A 776 bp fragment of GH, a 501 bp fragment of LPR, and 439 bp fragment of PRLgenes were amplified via PCR. Comparative sequence analysis of GH, PRL and LP-R fragments in different chicken and quail samples revealed different number of SNPs. The aligned DNA sequences of the 776 - bp fragment of GHregion showed total of 12 SNPs. All of them are noncoding SNPs. 16 SNPs were detected in LEPR, 9 SNPs in PRL gene. The results of the present study will contribute to the polymorphism data on the world’s some poultry species/breeds. Furthermore, the above-mentioned SNPs of poultry species are evaluated in relation to their genetic diversity, and to infer their meat and egg production properties on the basis of the available literature.
Key words:Gallus gallus, Courtnix courtnix japonica, PRL,GH, LPR
G. Dellal, İ. Daşkiran, N. Koluman, H. Kiliç, E. Pehlivan, Ö. Köksal, A. Şen. 2017. Goat Meat Production in Turkey: Present Situation and Future. 2nd International Balkan Agriculture Congress 2017, 16-18 Mayıs 2017, Tekirdağ/TÜRKİYE. (Sözlü Sunum)
The goats have been breeding for centuries in Turkey and goat products have been contributing to the family farm income and national economy. Geographical and economic conditions of Turkey are very suitable for goat breeding. Turkey has approximately 10.416 million goats, according to data of 2015. The total population is mainly constituted Hair and Angora goat (respectively, 10.210.000 and 205.828). Goat meat consumption and production in Turkey is low depending on many factors. Production amount of goat meat is 33.990 tons in 2015 and this production level is constitute approximately 3% of the red meat production. However, significant improvements in goat meat consumption are also experienced in recent years. In this paper studied the current situation of goat meat production in Turkey, expected changes in the near future and the contributions of this production area to Turkish economy.
Key words: Turkey, goat meat, production, consumption
The microalgae include important food substances for aquatic animals in aquaculture and human health as well as have biological and ecological roles in aquatic ecosystems additionally. Numerous microalgae species are used in industrial purposed biotechnological studies and animal feeding for their high protein, beta-carotene, unsaturated fatty acid, vitamin and pigment contents. Commercial microalgae and the most important pigments they contain; beta-carotene (Dunaliella salina, Scenedesmus acutus), phycocyanin (Spirulina sp.), Astaxanthin (Haematococcus pluvialis), chlorophyll b, cellular xanthophyll (Nannochloropsis oculata). Haematococcus pluvaris is a single-celled microalgae, which synthesizes astaxanthin in stress conditions such as excessive light, high temperature, and nutrient deficiency. Astaxanthin; is a natural carotenoid pigment with high antioxidant capacity. Thus, antioxidant activity of astaxanthin is reported to be 500 times more effective than Vitamin E, 10 times more effective than beta-carotene (vitamin A) 6000 times stronger than vitamin C and 4 times more effective than lutein. Astaxanthin acts as an antioxidant to protect cells against free radicals such as hydroxyl and peroxyl. It also has anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol-regulating effects. Astaxanthin is an alternative feed additive in poultry feeding studies with its high antioxidant capacity, although it is a natural coloring matter, as consumer preferences are at the forefront. In this review, the significance of astaxanthin, using of areas and importance of animal nutrition will be examined in light of the literature.
Key words: Broiler, performance,astaxanthin
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation commercial enzyme combination (EC) addition on the 42-day growth performance, internal organ development, ileal histology and intestinal microbiota of male broilers. A total of 225 ROSS 308 male broiler chickens were used at 1 day of age, including 3 treatment groups in each treatment group, 5 replicates in each treatment group and 15 in each treatment group. The treatment groups in the study were: 1) control, 2) 300 ppm EC addition to drinking water, and 3) 300 ppm EC addition to ration. Commercial broiler diet was used in the research. The enzyme combination was daily mixed daily for animal’s drinking water and diet (300 ppm total, 20 ppm for each animal). The study lasted 42 days. At the end of the study, there were no statistically significant effects of EC additions on 42-day performance parameters, inner organ development, ileum histology and caecum lactic acid bacteria colonization of broiler chickens (P > 0.05). Supplementation of EC via drinking water and diet EC increased the number of total live bacteriaand decreased the number of Enterobacter in the gut of animals. At the end of the study, it was determined that supplementation of EC in diet and drinking water had no adverse effects on the 42-day performance parameters.
Key words: Enzyme combination, performance,intestinal histology, intestinal microbiota,broilers
K.Yılmaz, F. Korkmaz, A. Ağma Okur, E. Tahtabiçen, H.E. Şamlı, 2017. Effects of Liquorice Root Extracts (Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.) Use on Quality Parameters in Stored Hen Eggs. International 8th Balkan Animal Science Conference (BALNIMALCON 2017), 6-8 September, p.95, Prizren, Kosova. (Sözlü sunum)
The study evaluates the efficacy of Liquorice root extracts (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) in preserving the internal quality of hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) eggs coated with them and stored under room conditions of 21°C for 7-14 days. In other words 50 eggs were collected and used in 4 treatments (2 storage time x 2 coating of Liquorice root extracts+ 10 fresh eggs) with 10 eggs examined in each. In this study analysed that internal and external egg quality parameters.
Key words: Egg quality, storage time, Liquorice root extracts, hen
S. Soycan Önenç, 2017. The Role of Hormones and Metabolites on Regulation of Feed Intake in Animal. Balnimalcon 2017.
Animal feed intake and energy balance is an important in digestive physiology. Control mechanisms of feed intake and feeding behavior were discovered using different techniques. Many of these control mechanisms involve molecular signals from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS), including glocose, triglycerides, leptin, insülin, amylin, enterostatin, ghrelin and cholecystokinin released from different tissues.
The anorectic hormones leptin, insülin and the orexigenic hormone ghrelin act on specific receptors on neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. First identified as an endogenous growth hormone secretatogue, ghrelin is powerful orexigen recently recognized as a regulator of feed intake and energy balance. Ghrelin is mainly secreted from the stomach and its plasma levels rise during fasting or weight loss and decrease after feding. It has been shown that ghrelin stimulates appetite and feed intake when it peripherally or centrally administered to humans and animal. Recently, cholecystokinin (CCK) has been shown to inhibit the orexigenic effect of peripheral ghrelin. Leptin is an adiposity signal secreted into the plasma in proportion to the body fat stores. It reduced feed intake and regulates energy expenditure by the activation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and the inhibition of neuropeptid Y neurons in the ARC.
Insulin is pancreatic hormone cosecreted with amylin into the blood during meals. It is highly efficacious in reducing feed intake and body weigth when infused chronically by peripheral and central administration. Insulin receptors have been located in the ARC and insülin, like leptin, exerts its catabolic action by stimulating the hypotalamic melanocortin system. Insulin and leptin both seem to reduce feed intake at least in part by increasing the hindbrain response to the stating signal CCK. Leptin seems to enhance the satiation response to CCK also by acting directly on the same vagal afferent neurons. Many studies reported that interaction between CCK and ghrelin, leptin, and insülin and because of the modulation of CCK’s satiating effect by endogenous amylin.
Key words: Feed intake, feeding behavior, anorectic hormone, orexigenic hormone
Y. T. Tuna,A. R. Önal, F. Avcı, A. Şen, E. Pehlivan, G. Dellal.2017. The Effect of Skin Color Proportion of Holstein Cow on Production Parameters.BALNIMALCON 2017, 6-8 Eylül 2017, Prizren/KOSOVA. (Sözlü Sunum).
The aim of this study was determination of the effect of color proportion (black-white) on reproductive performance and milk production levels. The material of study was 61 heads of Holstein cows and their records of first and second lactation. The two side of each animal recorded by video camera and transferred to computer than got to images per cow. Proportion black and white color counted by image processing methods. The stepwise method applied for improvement regression model to estimate effect color proportion on yield. The parameters evaluated for reproductive performance were first insemination age, age at first calving, time period between two calving, service period, insemination number per pregnancy and milk production parameters were lactation period, total lactation milk yield, 305 days milk yield. The descriptive statistics were 15.58±0.36; 24.56±0.38; 94.43±2.61; 433.31±10.35 and 2.47±0.09 determined for first insemination age, age at first calving, time period between two calving, service period, insemination number per pregnancy respectively, and 362.07±9.81; 61.09±0.61; 11190.78±233.67 and 9816.03±159.35 for lactation period, total lactation milk yield, 305 days milk yield respectively for production levels. The result indicated that no statistical significant between white color rate and age at first calving, first insemination age and time period between two calving (p>0.05). It was high statistical significant calculated between white color rate, service period and insemination number per pregnancy (P<0.01; P<0.05). The study show that the change one 1% of white color on positive way effect 1.9 lt daily milk production and the white color rate can be used for a selection dairy cows.
Key words: Holstein, Color proportion,image processing, morphometric measurements, reproduction, milk production